Base oil groups. Base oils are oils that were previously purified from unwanted components and contain no additives. Base oils serve as the basis for most commercial oils, and at the same time the market is receiving a growing amount of synthetic and mixed oils.
When selecting a base oil, it is important to consider its economic performance and operational characteristics. To improve the performance properties of the base oil, it is mixed with an additive.
The large groups of oils have the following properties:
- Reduce friction and wear of rubbing parts;
- Lubricate bearings;
- Extend the range of operating temperatures;
- Prevent corrosion;
- Remove heat from friction;
- Remove wear debris from friction zone.
Also, the oils need to have stability during operation and be compatible with the materials of the seals. They should not be prone to foaming and must have low hygroscopicity.
Base oil group: industrial, motor, energy and other oils
Basic mineral oils are classified by:
- Physicochemical properties (viscosity, pour point);
- Raw material source (paraffin, naphthenic);
- Method of production (distillation, blending and residual blending).
Some manufacturers also classify base oils according to their application. There are industrial, motor, energy and other oils.
But the main parameter for oil classification is still viscosity measured at different temperatures.
The general requirements for base oils are:
- Good color;
- High flash point;
- Low evaporation rate;
- High viscosity index;
- Good compatibility with additives;
- Stability of properties during storage.