Substation. Substations are an integral part of modern electric power systems. They are used in every electric grid. Modern substations are complex units for transmission of electricity from high-voltage lines to households.
Complete transformer substations are compact arrangements for receiving, conversion, distribution and metering electricity.
Depending on the type of connection to the high-voltage lines there are one-ended substations and double-ended substations. The main difference is that one-ended substation is connected to one high-voltage line, and double-ended substation is connected to two lines.
Indoor substations are based on the premises by process equipment. Pole mounted substations are installed on power transmission towers. Kiosk substations are designed for safety reasons and for protection against adverse weather conditions. In addition the standard kiosk substation can be heat-insulated with floor, walls and roof “sandwich” panels.
Mast substations are designed for different height and have an open design. Devices of this type are used in agriculture, as well as for cottages and resort villages.
In general, a complete transformer substation consists of a high voltage switchgear cabinet, power transformer, high voltage current lead and low voltage current lead.
The complete transformer substation has the following protection equipment:
- Short-circuit protection;
- Circuit protection and protection signaling;
- Breaker failure protection;
- Line protection for loss of AC voltage.